YEMEN DEL SUR

(SOUTH YEMEN)     1967 – 1990

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La República Democrática Popular del Yemen (en árabe: جمهورية اليَمَنْ الديمُقراطية الشَعْبِيّة, Ŷumhūriyyat Al-Yaman Al-Dīmuqrāţīyah Al-Ša’abīyah; en inglés: People’s Democratic Republic of Yemen) fue un Estado marxista-leninista​ existente entre 1967 y 1990. Se unificó con el vecino Yemen del Norte, dando lugar a la actual República de Yemen. Fue, además, el primer Estado socialista que existió en el mundo árabe.  La capital de este Estado era la ciudad de Adén, actualmente una de las ciudades más importantes de Yemen.

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ESCUDO DE YEMEN DEL SUR.

Los intereses británicos en la zona que más tarde se convertiría en la República Democrática Popular del Yemen (RDPY) comienzan a surgir el 19 de enero de 1839, cuando la Compañía Británica de las Indias Orientales captura el puerto de Adén. Esta colonia estaría subyugada a los británicos como parte de la colonia india hasta 1937, cuando se constituye la Colonia de Adén.

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ULTIMO PRESIDENTE, HAIDAR ABU BAKR AL ATTIAS.

La zona de influencia de Adén y el Hadhramaut formaban lo que en un futuro sería Yemen del Sur y no estaban administrados directamente por Adén, pero estaban prácticamente atados a los británicos en cuanto a tratados de “protección” con los líderes tribales de la zona. Junto a estos líderes locales, los británicos crearon lo que se conocería como Protectorado de Adén. El desarrollo económico de la zona se centró enormemente en la ciudad de Adén, pero mientras la ciudad florecía, el desarrollo del protectorado en general se estancó.

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BILLETE DE 1 DINAR.

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BILLETE DE 10 DINARES.

Dos grupos independentistas, el Frente para la Liberación del Sur del Yemen Ocupado (FLSYO) y el Frente Nacional (FN), comenzaron en octubre de 1963 una campaña de lucha armada contra la administración británica en el país, y, con el breve cierre del Canal de Suez en 1967, la administración colonial británica comenzó la retirada. El sur de Yemen se independiza y se proclama la República Popular de Yemen del Sur el 30 de noviembre de 1967, haciéndose el Frente Nacional con el control del nuevo Estado.

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SELLOS DEL QUINTO ANIVERSARIO DE LA CREACION DE YEMEN DEL SUR.

En junio de 1969, el ala socialista del FN fue ganando poder y cambió el nombre del país por el de República Democrática Popular del Yemen. En la RPDY todos los partidos políticos se agruparon en torno al Partido Socialista de Yemen (PSY), convirtiéndose éste en el único partido político legal. La RPDY estableció lazos con la Unión Soviética, la República Popular China, Cuba, la República Democrática Alemana y con las organizaciones militantes palestina.

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MONEDA DE 50 FILS – 1977.

The People’s Democratic Republic of Yemen (Arabic: جمهورية اليمن الديمقراطية الشعبية‎‎ Jumhūrīyat al-Yaman ad-Dīmuqrāṭīyah ash-Sha‘bīyah), also referred to as South Yemen, Democratic Yemen, Yemen (Aden) or the South Arabian Federation, was a socialist state in the southern and eastern provinces of the present-day Republic of Yemen, including the island of Socotra.

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RETIRADA DE SOLDADOS BRITANICOS DE ADEN.

In 1838, Sultan Muhsin Bin Fadl of the nearby state of Lahej ceded 194 km² (75 sq. miles) including Aden to the British. On 19 January 1839, the British East India Company landed Royal Marines at Aden to occupy the territory and stop attacks by pirates against British shipping to India. It then became an important trading hub between British Indiaand the Red Sea, and following the opening of the Suez canal in 1869, it became a coaling station for ships en route to India. 

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MANIFESTACION PIDIENDO LA SECESION DE YEMEN DEL SUR.

Aden was ruled as part of British India until 1937, when the city of Aden became the Colony of Aden. The Aden hinterland and Hadhramaut to the east formed the remainder of what would become South Yemen and was not administered directly by Aden but were tied to Britain by treaties of protection with local rulers of traditional polities that, together, became known as the Aden Protectorate. Economic development was largely centered in Aden, and while the city flourished, the states of the Aden Protectorate stagnated.

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In 1963, Aden and much of the Protectorate were joined to form the Federation of South Arabia with the remaining states that declined to join, mainly in Hadhramaut, forming the separate Protectorate of South Arabia. Both of these polities were still tied to Britain with promises of total independence in 1968. Two nationalist groups, the Front for the Liberation of Occupied South Yemen (FLOSY) and the National Liberation Front (NLF), began an armed struggle(Aden Emergency) on 14 October 1963 against British control and, with the temporary closure of the Suez Canal in 1967, the British began to withdraw.

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GUERRA CIVIL DE 1979.

 One faction, NLF, was invited to the Geneva Talks to sign the independence agreement with the British. However, Britain – who during its occupation of Aden signed several treaties of protection with the local sheikhdoms and emirates of the Federation of South Arabia – excluded them in the talks and thus the agreement stated “…the handover of the territory of South Arabia to the (Yemeni) NLF…”. Southern Yemen became independent as the People’s Republic of Southern Yemen on 30 November 1967, and the National Liberation Front consolidated its control in the country. However, these plans were put on hold in 1979, as the PDRY funded Red rebels in the YAR, and war was only prevented by an Arab League intervention. The goal of unity was reaffirmed by the northern and southern heads of state during a summit meeting in Kuwait in March 1979.

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CELEBRACION DE LA UNIFCACION.

On January 13, 1986, a violent struggle began in Aden between Ali Nasir’s supporters and supporters of the returned Ismail, who wanted power back. Fighting, known as the South Yemen Civil War, lasted for more than a month and resulted in thousands of casualties, Ali Nasir’s ouster, and Ismail’s death. Some 60,000 people, including the deposed Ali Nasir, fled to the YAR. Ali Salim al-Beidh, an ally of Ismail who had succeeded in escaping the attack on pro-Ismail members of the Politburo, then became General Secretary of the Yemeni Socialist Party.

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ADEN, ANTIGUA CAPITAL DE YEMEN DEL SUR.

Against the background of the Perestroika in the USSR, the main backer of the PDRY, political reforms were started in the late 1980s. Political prisoners were released, political parties were formed and the system of justice was reckoned to be more equitable than in the North. In May 1988, the YAR and PDRY governments came to an understanding that considerably reduced tensions including agreement to renew discussions concerning unification, to establish a joint oil exploration area along their undefined border, to demilitarize the border, and to allow Yemenis unrestricted border passage on the basis of only a national identification card. In 1990, the parties reached a full agreement on joint governing of Yemen, and the countries were effectively merged as Yemen.

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