(REPUBLIC OF ZAMBOANGA) 1899 – 1903
La República de Zamboanga fue una república revolucionaria de corta duración fundada tras el colapso del régimen colonial español en Filipinas. La república se inició el 18 de mayo de 1899 con la rendición de la fortaleza de la Real Fuerza de Nuestra Señora del Pilar de Zaragoza. El 16 de noviembre de 1899, los españoles evacuaron finalmente Zamboanga, después de quemar la mayor parte de los edificios de la ciudad.
En diciembre de 1899, el capitán Pratt de la 23ª compañía de Infantería de los EE. UU. llegó a Zamboanga y se hizo con el control de la fortaleza. A partir de entonces la naciente república se convirtió en un protectorado estadounidense. En marzo de 1903 el gobierno del presidente Mariano Arquiza terminó y fue reemplazado por un gobernador estadounidense.
The Republic of Zamboanga officially known as The Independent Republic of Zamboanga (Zamboangueño Chavacano and Spanish: La Independiente República de Zamboanga) was a short-lived revolutionary republic, founded after the collapse of Spanish colonial rule in Zamboanga in 1899.
On February 28, 1899, in a house in Sta. Maria, a revolutionary government was organized and General Vicente Alvarez was elected provisional president and commander-in-chief. He then planned to take Real Fuerza de Nuestra Señora La Virgen del Pilar de Zaragoza which was the last Spanish stronghold in the Philippines.
The republic was formally established on May 18, 1899, with the surrender of Fort Pilar to the Revolutionary Government of Zamboanga under the leadership of General Alvarez. On May 23, 1899, the Spaniards finally evacuated Zamboanga, after burning down most of the city’s buildings in contempt of the Zamboangueños’ revolt against them.
General Álvarez’s term was cut short when the commander of Tetuan, Isidro Midel, cooperated with the Americans in exchange for the presidency. He then ordered the assassination of Major Melanio Calixto, acting commander of Zamboanga, because Álvarez was on a trip to Basilan to recruit more forces. On November 16, 1899, Midel flew the white flag over Fort Pilar to signal the occupying American forces to enter the fort which led to the overthrow of Álvarez’s government.
Álvarez and his allies were forced to flee to the nearby town of Mercedes then to the island of Basilan and went into hiding. In December 1899, Captain Pratt of the 23rd U.S. Infantry arrived at Zamboanga and took control of Fort Pilar. Thereafter, the nascent republic became a U.S. protectorate and Midel was allowed to continue as president of the republic for about sixteen months.
In March 1901, the Americans allowed the republic to hold elections and elected Mariano Arquiza to succeed Midel as the new president of the Zamboanga Republic. However, Arquiza’s government did not exercise effective authority over Zamboanga and finally in March 1903, the Republic of Zamboanga was dissolved.
After, the American colonial government designated Zamboanga as capital of the newly established Moro Province which served as the provincial entity of Mindanao with Brigadier General Leonard Wood as its governor.
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