(TRUCIAL STATES) 1820 – 1971
Los Estados de la Tregua, también conocidos como Omán de la Tregua, se refieren a los actuales territorios de los Emiratos Árabes Unidos. Antes de la llegada del Imperio británico a la península arábiga, existía tanta pirateríaen la costa, que la zona era conocida con el nombre de “costa de los piratas”.
Cuando los británicos se empezaron a interesar por los productos que existían en el territorio, tuvieron una audiencia con el jefe de la tribu árabe del lugar. Así se decidió que el imperio británico tomaría mando del territorio a cambio de la seguridad de la región, por la alta piratería que existía. Después de un tiempo los británicos cambiaron el nombre de la costa por “Estados de la Tregua” en el año de 1892. Después de pasar a ser territorio británico, se le anexaron otros territorios más (Catary Baréin).
Los Estados de la Tregua incluían:
- Abu Dhabi (1820–1971)
- Ajman (1820–1971)
- Dubai (1835–1971)
- Fujairah (1952–1971)
- Kalba (1936–1951)
- Ras al-Khaimah (1820–1971)
- Sharjah (1820–1971)
- Umm Al Quwain (1820–1971)
The Trucial Coast (Arabic: الساحل المتهادن، أو المتصالح As-Sāḥil al-Mutahādin/al-Mutaṣāliḥ; also known as Trucial States, Trucial Oman, Trucial States of the Coast of Oman, and Trucial Sheikhdoms) were a group of tribal confederations in the south-eastern Persian Gulf, previously known to the British as the “Pirate Coast”, which were signatories to treaties (hence ‘trucial’) with the British government. These treaties established an informal protectorate by Great Britain, and the sheikhdoms, or emirates, were a British protectorate from 1820 until 2 December 1971, when the seven principal trucial sheikhdoms became independent. Six (Dubai, Abu Dhabi, Sharjah, Ajman, Al Quwain and Fujairah) were to form the United Arab Emirates on that day; the seventh – Ras Al Khaimah – joined the Federation on 10 February 1972.
The sheikhdoms permanently allied themselves with the United Kingdom by the Perpetual Maritime Truce of 1853, until in 1892 they entered into “Exclusivity Agreements” with the British – following on from Bahrain in 1880 – which put them under British protection. This was an unclear status which fell short of a formal protectorate, but required Britain to defend them from external aggression in exchange for exclusive British rights in the states.
Two sheikhdoms at various times looked as if they might be granted trucial status, affirming their independence from neighbouring Sharjah, Al Hamriyah and Al Heera, but neither signed treaties with the British. Kalba, granted trucial status in 1936 because it was chosen as the site of a back-up landing strip for the Imperial Airways flights into Sharjah, was re-incorporated into Sharjah in 1951 on the death of its ruler.
The last sheikhdom to be granted recognition was that of Fujairah, which became a trucial state in 1952 after the British government came under pressure from PCL (Petroleum Concessions Limited) to grant status in order that the company could have a free hand to explore for oil along the whole east coast.
In 1952, the Trucial States Council was established to encourage co-operation between the seven Rulers. The Indian rupee remained the de facto currency of the Trucial States as well as the other Persian Gulf states such as Qatar, Bahrain and Oman until these countries introduced their own currencies in 1969, after the great devaluation of the rupee.
The other ‘Trucial States’ had long been a British protectorate with the British taking care of foreign policy and defence, as well as arbitrating between the rulers of the Eastern Gulf. This changed with Harold Wilson’s announcement, on 16 January 1968, that all British troops were to be withdrawn from ‘East of Aden’. The decision pitched the Trucial Coasters, together with Qatar and Bahrain, into fevered negotiations to fill the political vacuum that the British withdrawal would leave behind.
The principle of union was first agreed between the ruler of Abu Dhabi, Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan and Sheikh Rashid of Dubai on 18 February 1968 meeting in an encampment at Argoub Al Sedirah, near Al Semeih, a desert stop between the two emirates. The two agreed to work towards bringing the other emirates, including Qatar and Bahrain, into the union. Over the next two years, negotiations and meetings of the rulers followed – often stormy – as a form of union was thrashed out. The nine-state union was never to recover from the October 1969 meeting where heavy-handed British intervention resulted in a walk-out by Qatar and Ras Al Khaimah. Bahrain and Qatar were to drop out of talks, leaving only six emirates to agree on union on 18 July 1971.
On 2 December 1971, Dubai, together with Abu Dhabi, Sharjah, Ajman, Umm Al Quwain and Fujairah joined in the Act of Union to form the United Arab Emirates. The seventh emirate, Ras Al Khaimah, joined the UAE on 10 February 1972 following Iran’s seizure of Abu Musa and the Greater and Lesser Tunbs from Ras Al Khaimah.
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