NUEVA GUINEA ALEMANA

(GERMAN NEW GUINEA)    1884 – 1914

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Nueva Guinea Alemana (en alemán: Deutsch-Neuguinea) fue un protectorado alemán desde 1884 hasta 1914, consistente en la parte noreste de Nueva Guinea y varios grupos de islas cercanos.  La parte principal de la Nueva Guinea Alemana era el Kaiser-Wilhelmsland, la parte noreste de Nueva Guinea, actualmente parte de Papúa Nueva Guinea. Las islas del archipiélago Bismarck situadas al oeste de Kaiser-Wilhelmsland y actualmente también pertenecientes a Papúa Nueva Guinea, también eran parte del protectorado.

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EMBLEMA DE GUINEA ALEMANA.

Además la mayoría de los territorios alemanes del Pacífico eran parte de la Nueva Guinea Alemana: las Islas Salomón Alemanas (Buka, Bougainville y varias islas menores), las Carolinas, Palaos, las Marianas (excepto Guam), las Islas Marshall y Nauru, en total se estima que la Nueva Guinea Alemana tenía una extensión de 249 500 km².

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GOBERNADOR ALBERT  HAHL.

El 1 de abril de 1899 el gobierno alemán tomó posesión formalmente de estos territorios, y la región se convirtió en protectorado. Un tratado con España, firmado el 30 de julio de ese mismo año, garantizaba el control alemán sobre varios grupos de islas en el Pacífico que engrosaron el protectorado de la Nueva Guinea Alemana. Las Islas Marshall fueron anexionadas en 1906.

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1 MARCO DE NUEVA GUINEA – 1894.

Siguiendo el estallido de la I Guerra Mundial, las tropas australianas se hicieron con Kaiser-Wilhelmsland y las islas vecinas en 1914 tras una breve resistencia liderada por el capitán Karl von Klewitz y el teniente Robert “Lord Bob” von Blumenthal, mientras Japón ocupaba el resto de las islas del Pacífico.

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EL GOLDMARK ALEMAN, FUE EL PAPEL MONEDA QUE CIRCULO EN LA COLONIA.

Después del Tratado de Versalles de 1919, Alemania perdió todas sus colonias, incluida la Nueva Guinea Alemana. Se convirtió en el Territorio de Nueva Guinea, dependiente de la Sociedad de Naciones bajo administración australiana hasta 1949 cuando se fusionó con el territorio australiano de Papúa para finalmente pasar a ser el norte de la actual Papúa Nueva Guinea.

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SELLO DE 1 MARCO.

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SELLO DE DOS MARCOS.

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SELLO DE 5 MARCOS.

German New Guinea (German: Deutsch-Neuguinea) was the first part of the German colonial empire. It was a protectorate from 1884 until 1914 when it fell to Australian forces following the outbreak of the First World War. It consisted of the northeastern part of New Guinea and several nearby island groups. The mainland part of German New Guinea and the nearby islands of the Bismarck Archipelago and the North Solomon Islands are now part of Papua New Guinea. The Micronesian islands of German New Guinea are now governed as the Federated States of Micronesia, the Marshall Islands, Nauru, the Northern Mariana Islands and Palau.

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NATIVOS DE NUEVA GUINEA.

The mainland portion, Kaiser-Wilhelmsland, was formed from the northeastern part of New Guinea. The islands to the east of Kaiser-Wilhelmsland, on annexation, were renamed the Bismarck Archipelago (formerly the New Britannia Archipelago) and the two largest islands renamed Neu-Pommern (“New Pomerania”, today’s New Britain) and Neu-Mecklenburg (“New Mecklenburg, now New Ireland). Due to their accessibility by water, however, these outlying islands were, and have remained, the most economically viable part of the territory.

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FUERZAS INDIGENAS.

With the exception of German Samoa, the German islands in the Western Pacific formed the “Imperial German Pacific Protectorates”. These were administered as part of German New Guinea and they included the German Solomon Islands (Buka, Bougainville, and several smaller islands), the Carolines, Palau, the Marianas (except for Guam), the Marshall Islands, and Nauru. The total land area of German New Guinea was 249,500 square kilometres (96,300 sq mi).

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INSTRUCCION DE RECLUTAS NATIVOS.

Following the outbreak of World War I, Australian troops captured Kaiser-Wilhelmsland and the nearby islands in 1914, after a short resistance led by captain Carl von Klewitz and Lt. Robert “Lord Bob” von Blumenthal, while Japan occupied most of the remaining German possessions in the Pacific. The only significant battle occurred on 11 September 1914 when the Australian Naval and Military Expeditionary Force attacked the low-power wireless station at Bita Paka (near Rabaul) on the island of New Britain, then Neu Pommern.

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GOBERNADOR ALEMAN.

The Australians suffered six dead and four wounded – the first Australian military casualties of the First World War. The German forces fared much worse, with one German officer and 30 native police killed and one German officer and ten native police wounded. On 21 September all German forces in the colony surrendered.

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RESERVISTAS ALEMANES – 1914.

However, Leutnant (later Hauptmann) Hermann Detzner, a German officer, and some 20 native police evaded capture in the interior of New Guinea for the entire war. Detzner was on a surveying expedition to map the border with Australian-held Papua at the outbreak of war, and remained outside militarised areas. Detzner claimed to have penetrated the interior of the German portion (Kaiser Wilhelmsland) in his 1920 book Vier Jahre unter Kannibalen (“Four Years Among Cannibals”). 

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CASA DE GOBERNACION ALEMANA EN EL ARCHIPIELAGO BISMARCK.

These claims were heavily disputed by various German missionaries, and Detzner recanted most of his claims in 1932. After the Treaty of Versailles of 1919, Germany lost all its colonial possessions, including German New Guinea. In 1923, the League of Nations gave Australia a trustee mandate over Nauru, with the United Kingdom and New Zealand as co-trustees. 

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Other lands south of the equator became the Territory of New Guinea, a League of Nations Mandate Territory under Australian administration until 1949 (interrupted by Japanese occupation during the New Guinea campaign) when it was merged with the Australian territory of Papua to become the Territory of Papua and New Guinea, which eventually became modern Papua New Guinea. The islands north of the equator became the Japanese League of Nations Mandate for the South Seas Islands. After Japan’s defeat in World War II, the former Japanese mandate islands were administered by the United States as the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, a United Nations trust territory.

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