(KARS REPUBLIC) 1918
El Gobierno Interino Nacional del Cáucaso Suroccidental (en turco: Güneybatı Kafkasya Geçici Hükûmeti) o República de Kars, fue una administración transitoria, con sede en la ciudad turca de Kars, establecida por el Imperio otomano el 17 de abril de 1918, unos días después de que el ejército imperial otomano recuperaran Batum, de la República de Transcaucasia, en la Primera Guerra Mundial.
Tras el armisticio de Mudros (11 de noviembre de 1918) que pone fin a la guerra entre el Imperio y los Aliados, se acuerda que los británicos ocupararan la zona y los otomanos se retiraran. La administración quedó disuelta en enero de 1919 con la llegada de los británicos. La bandera tenía los colores rojo y verde y la media luna y estrella, símbolo nacional turco.
The Provisional National Government of the Southwestern Caucasus, Provisional National Government of South West Caucasia, or Kars Republic was a short-lived nominally-independent provisional government based in Kars, northeastern Turkey. Born in the wake of the Armistice of Mudros that ended World War I in the Middle East, it existed from December 1, 1918 until April 19, 1919, when it was abolished by British High Commissioner Admiral Somerset Arthur Gough-Calthorpe. Some historians consider it to have been a puppet state of the Ottoman Empire.
The government, headed by Fakhr al-Din Pirioghlu, considered its territory to be the predominantly Muslim-inhabited regions of Kars and Batum, parts of Yerevan province and the Akhaltsikhe and Akhalkalaki districts of Tiflis province. In practical terms, however, the government was confined to Kars province and existed alongside the British governorship created during the Entente‘s intervention in Transcaucasia.
Under the terms of the Armistice of Mudros signed on 30 October 1918, the armed forces of the Ottoman Empire were required to withdraw from all territory belonging to Russia in the Caucasus and return to the west of the pre-war border with Russia. By 4 December 1918, Ottoman forces had retired as far as the old pre-1877 frontier with Russia, but delayed leaving Kars Oblast for a further two months.
This delay was to allow time to set up a pro-Turkish provisional government to resist the expected incorporation of the historically-Armenian province into the Armenian Republic. “National Islamic Councils” were formed in the main population centers of Kars province – Oltu, Kagizman, Igdir, Sarikamis, Ardahan and Kars itself – as well as settlements in adjoining territories where there were Turkish-speaking or Muslim populations (including Akhalkalaki, Akhaltzikhe and Batumi).
The most significant council was the “Kars Islamic Council” established on 5 November 1918. In December it changed its name to the “National Council”, and in January 1919 to the “Kars National Council”, before finally settling on the “Provisional National Government of South-West Caucasia” in March 1919. It claimed authority over all of Kars province together with all Turkish or Muslim-populated areas between Batumi and Nakhchivan. Other than Azerbaijan, this amounted to most of the territory which had been evacuated by the Ottoman army.
As fighting broke out between the South-Western Caucasian Republic and both Georgia and Armenia, British troops, dispatched from Batum on orders from General William M. Thomson, occupied Kars on April 19, 1919, broke up a parliamentary meeting and arrested thirty parliamentarians and government members. Eleven of the arrested were deported to Batum and then İstanbul, before being exiled to Malta on 2 June. Kars province was placed under Armenian rule and, on July 7, 1920, the Georgian army replaced the British in Batum, who had controlled it since the Turkish withdrawal.
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