SALOMON BRITANICAS

(BRITISH SOLOMON ISLANDS)    1893 – 1978

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El Protectorado británico de las Islas Salomón fue declarado por primera vez en el sur de las Islas Salomón en 1893, cuando el Capitán Gibson R.N., del HMS Curacoa, declaró las islas del sur un Protectorado británico. Otras islas fueron declaradas posteriormente para formar parte del Protectorado durante un período que termina en 1900.

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EMBLEMA ISLAS SALOMON BRITANICAS.

El Protectorado primero fue declarado sobre las Solomon del sur en 1893. Las formalidades en su establecimiento fueron llevadas a cabo por oficiales de la Armada Real, que izaron la bandera británica y leyeron las Proclamaciones en veintiuna islas. En 1897 se agregaron las islas Bellona y Rennell y las islas Stewart y en 1898 el grupo Santa Cruz, las islas Arrecifes, Anuda (Cherry), Fataka (Mitre) y Trevannion y Duff (Wilson).  El 18 de agosto de 1898 y el 1 de octubre de 1898, el Alto Comisionado para el Pacífico Occidental emitió Proclamaciones que declararon (aparentemente superfluo) que todas esas islas deberían “formar parte de ahora” del Protectorado.

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GOBERNADOR BRITANICO CHARLES MORRIS WOODFORD.

Por un convenio firmado en 1899 y ratificado en 1900, Alemania renunció a sus derechos en las islas al este y al sureste de Bougainville, y en octubre de 1900, el Alto Comisionado publicó una Proclamación extendiendo el Protectorado a las islas en cuestión, es decir Choiseul , Las islas de Ysabel, de Shortland y de Fauro (cada una con sus dependencias), el grupo de Tasman, el grupo de señor Howe y la isla de Gower.

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LA LIBRA AUSTRALIANA FUE LA MONEDA DE CURSO LEGAL EN LAS ISLAS.

Las fuerzas japonesas ocuparon las Islas Salomón en enero de 1942. El contraataque fue dirigido por los Estados Unidos; la 1ª División de la Infantería de Marina estadounidense aterrizó en Guadalcanal y Tulagi en agosto de 1942. Algunos de los enfrentamientos más amargos de la Segunda Guerra Mundial tuvieron lugar en las islas durante casi tres años.

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BILLETE DE 10 SHILLINGS – 1926.

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BILLETE DE 1 LIBRA – 1926.

Tulagi, el asiento de la administración británica en la isla de Nggela Sule en la provincia central fue destruido en la lucha pesada después de aterrizajes por los infantes de marina de los EEUU. Luego la dura batalla por Guadalcanal, que se centró en la captura del campo de aviación, Henderson Field, llevó al desarrollo de la ciudad adyacente de Honiara como el centro de logística de los Estados Unidos.

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DURANTE LA SEGUNDA GUERRA MUNDIAL LOS JAPONESES INTRODUJERON LA LIBRA DE OCEANIA.

El impacto de la guerra en los isleños fue profundo. La destrucción causada por los combates y las consecuencias a largo plazo de la introducción de materiales modernos, maquinaria y artefactos culturales occidentales, transformaron los modos tradicionales de vida aislada de las islas. La reconstrucción fue lenta en ausencia de reparaciones de guerra y con la destrucción de las plantaciones de antes de la guerra, que antes eran el pilar de la economía. Significativamente, la experiencia de los isleños de los Solomon como trabajadores con los aliados condujo algunos a una nueva apreciación de la importancia de la organización económica y del comercio como la base para el adelanto material.

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SELLO DE ISLAS SALOMON BRITANICAS CON LA EFIGIE DEL REY JORGE V.

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SELLO CON LA EFIGIE DE JORGE VI.

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SELLO CON LA EFIGIE DE ISABEL II.

La estabilidad fue restaurada durante la década de 1950, cuando la administración colonial británica construyó una red de consejos locales oficiales. En esta plataforma los isleños de las Islas Salomón con experiencia en los consejos locales comenzaron a participar en el gobierno central, inicialmente a través de la burocracia y luego, a partir de 1960, a través de los recién establecidos Consejos Legislativos y Ejecutivos. El Protectorado no poseía una constitución propia hasta 1960. Las posiciones en ambos consejos fueron nombradas inicialmente por el Alto Comisionado para el Pacífico Occidental.

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British Solomon Islands Protectorate was first declared over the southern Solomons in 1893, when Captain Gibson R.N., of HMS Curacoa, declared the southern islands a British Protectorate.  Other islands were subsequently declared to form part of the Protectorate over a period ending in 1900. The Protectorate was first declared over the southern Solomons in 1893. The formalities in its establishment were carried out by officers of the Royal Navy, who hoisted the British flag and read Proclamations on twenty-one islands.

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RECLUTAS NATIVOS.

By similar means, Bellona and Rennell Islands and the Stewart Islands were added in 1897, and the Santa Cruzgroup, the Reef Islands, Anuda (Cherry), Fataka (Mitre) and Trevannion Islands and Duff (Wilson) group in 1898.  On 18 August 1898 and 1 October 1898, the High Commissioner for the Western Pacific issued Proclamations which declared (apparently superfluously) that all those islands should “henceforth” form part of the Protectorate.

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NATIVOS DE SAVO.

By a Convention signed in 1899 and ratified in 1900, Germany renounced her rights in the islands to the east and south-east of Bougainville, and in October 1900, the High Commissioner issued a Proclamation extending the Protectorate to the islands in question, i.e. Choiseul, Ysabel, Shortland and Fauro Islands (each with its dependencies), the Tasman group, Lord Howe’s group and Gower Island.

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ISLAS DE BOUGAINVILLE – 1942.

Its establishment followed missionary activity which began in the mid 19th century and the establishment of a German Protectorate over the Northern Solomons, following an Anglo-German Treaty of 1886. German interests were transferred to the United Kingdom under the Samoa Tripartite Convention of 1899, in exchange for recognition of the German claim to Western Samoa.

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FUERZAS AMERICANAS EN GUADALCANAL – 1942.

Japanese forces occupied the Solomon Islands in January 1942. The counter-attack was led by the United States; the 1st Division of the US Marine Corps landed on Guadalcanal and Tulagi in August 1942. Some of the bitterest fighting of World War II took place on the islands for almost three years.

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DESEMBARCO DE TROPAS.

Tulagi, the seat of the British administration on the island of Nggela Sule in Central Province was destroyed in the heavy fighting following landings by the US Marines. Then the tough battle for Guadalcanal, which was centered on the capture of the airfield, Henderson Field, led to the development of the adjacent town of Honiara as the United States logistics center.

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 BATALLA DE GUADALCANAL.

Islanders Biuku Gasa and Eroni Kumana were Allied scouts during the war. They became famous when they were noted by National Geographic for being the first men to find the shipwrecked John F. Kennedy and his crew of the PT-109 using a traditional dugout canoe. They suggested the idea of using a coconut to write a rescue message for delivery.

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BATALLA DE GUADALCANAL.

The coconut was later kept on Kennedy’s desk. Their names had not been credited in most movie and historical accounts, and they were turned back before they could visit President Kennedy’s inauguration, though the Australian coastwatcher would also meet the president. They were visited by a member of the Kennedy family in 2002, where they still lived in traditional huts without electricity.

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VESTIGIOS BATALLA DE GUADALCANAL.

The impact of the war on islanders was profound. The destruction caused by the fighting and the longer-term consequences of the introduction of modern materials, machinery and western cultural artifacts, transformed traditional isolated island ways of life. The reconstruction was slow in the absence of war reparations and with the destruction of the pre-war plantations, formerly the mainstay of the economy.

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VESTIGIOS BATALLA DE GUADALCANAL.

Significantly, the Solomon Islanders’ experience as labourers with the Allies led some to a new appreciation of the importance of economic organisation and trade as the basis for material advancement. Some of these ideas were put into practice in the early post-war political movement “Maasina Ruru”—often redacted to “Marching Rule”.

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CONMEMORACION BATALLA DE GUADALCANAL.

Stability was restored during the 1950s, as the British colonial administration built a network of official local councils. On this platform Solomon Islanders with experience on the local councils started participation in central government, initially through the bureaucracy and then, from 1960, through the newly established Legislative and Executive Councils. The Protectorate did not possess a constitution of its own until 1960.

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MEMORIAL BATALLA DE GUADALCANAL.

Positions on both Councils were initially appointed by the High Commissioner for the Western Pacific  but progressively more of the positions were directly elected or appointed by electoral colleges formed by the local councils. The first national election was held in 1964 for the seat of Honiara, and by 1967 the first general election was held for all but one of the 15 representative seats on the Legislative Council (the one exception was the Eastern Outer Islands constituency, which was again appointed by electoral college).

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MONUMENTO A SIR JACOB VOUZA.

Elections were held again in 1970 and a new constitution was introduced. The 1970 constitution replaced the Legislative and Executive Councils with a single Governing Council. It also established a ‘committee system of government’ where all members of the Council sat on one or more of five committees. The aims of this system was to reduce divisions between elected representatives and the colonial bureaucracy, and to provide opportunities for training new representatives in managing the responsibilities of government.

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HONIARA, CAPITAL DE LAS ISLAS SALOMON.

It was also claimed that this system was more consistent with the Melanesian style of government, however this was quickly undermined by opposition to the 1970 constitution and the committee system by elected members of the council. As a result, a new constitution was introduced in 1974 which established a standard Westminster form of government and gave the Islanders both Chief Ministerial and Cabinet responsibilities.

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