INDIAS ORIENTALES NEERLANDESAS

(DUTCH EAST INDIES)    1800 – 1949

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Las Indias Orientales Neerlandesas (en neerlandés: Nederlands-Oost-Indië) (llamadas erróneamente Indias Orientales Holandesas) fue el nombre de las colonias establecidas originalmente por la Compañía Neerlandesa de las Indias Orientales, que estuvieron bajo la administración de los Países Bajos durante el siglo XIX.

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EMBLEMA DE LAS INDIAS NEERLANDESAS.

Durante el siglo XIX, las posesiones holandesas se expandieron, alcanzando su mayor extensión territorial a principios del siglo XX. Esta colonia era una de las colonias europeas más valiosas del imperio holandés, y contribuyó a la prominencia global holandesa en el comercio de la cosecha de las especies.

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ULTIMO GOBERNADOR HOLANDES TONY LOVYNK.

El orden social colonial se basaba en rígidas estructuras raciales y sociales, con una élite holandesa que vivía separada pero vinculada a sus súbditos nativos. El término Indonesia entró en uso para la ubicación geográfica después de 1880. A principios del siglo 20, los intelectuales locales comenzaron a desarrollar el concepto de Indonesia como un estado-nación, y sentaron las bases para un movimiento de independencia.

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MONEDA DE 1/4 DE FLORIN – 1945.

Durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial, la ocupación por parte de  Japón, desmanteló gran parte del estado y la economía colonial holandesa. Después de la rendición japonesa en agosto de 1945, los nacionalistas indonesios declararon la independencia. Los Países Bajos reconocieron oficialmente la soberanía indonesia en la Conferencia de mesa redonda holandesa-indonesia de 1949, con excepción de la Nueva Guinea neerlandesa (Nueva Guinea Occidental), cedida a Indonesia sólo en 1963 con arreglo a las disposiciones del Acuerdo de Nueva York.

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BILLETE DEL BANCO DE JAVA DE 50 FLORINES.

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BILLETE DEL BANCO DE JAVA DE 50 FLORINES.

En 1901 los holandeses adoptaron lo que llamaron la Política Ética, bajo la cual el gobierno colonial tenía el deber de promover el bienestar del pueblo indonesio en salud y educación. Otras medidas nuevas de la política incluyeron programas de riego, transmigración, comunicaciones, mitigación de inundaciones, industrialización y protección de la industria nativa.

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BILLETE DE 1 FLORIN, OCUPACION JAPONESA.

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BILLETE DE 10 FLORINES, OCUPACION JAPONESA.

La industrialización no afectó significativamente a la mayoría de los indonesios, e Indonesia siguió siendo una colonia agrícola. En 1930 había 17 ciudades con poblaciones de más de 50.000 y sus poblaciones combinadas ascendían a 1,87 millones de los 60 millones de la colonia.

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SELLO DE 20 CENTIMOS.

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SELLO DE 1 FLORIN.

During the 19th century, Dutch possessions and hegemony were expanded, reaching their greatest territorial extent in the early 20th century. This colony was one of the most valuable European colonies under the Dutch Empire’s rule, and contributed to Dutch global prominence in spice and cash crop trade in the 19th to early 20th century.

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SOLDADOS HOLANDESES EN SURABAYA – 1937.

The colonial social order was based on rigid racial and social structures with a Dutch elite living separate from but linked to their native subjects. The term Indonesia came into use for the geographical location after 1880. In the early 20th century, local intellectuals began developing the concept of Indonesia as a nation state, and set the stage for an independence movement.

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BANCO DE JAVA – 1920.

Japan’s World War II occupation dismantled much of the Dutch colonial state and economy. Following the Japanese surrender in August 1945, Indonesian nationalists declared independence which they fought to secure during the subsequent Indonesian National Revolution. The Netherlands formally recognised Indonesian sovereignty at the 1949 Dutch–Indonesian Round Table Conference with the exception of the Netherlands New Guinea (Western New Guinea), which was ceded to Indonesia only in 1963 under the provisions of the New York Agreement.

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COLONOS HOLANDESES IZANDO LA BANDERA.

The Netherlands capitulated their European territory to Germany on May 14, 1940. The royal family fled to exile in Britain. Germany and Japan were Axis allies. On 27 September 1940, Germany, Hungary, Italy, and Japan signed a treaty lining out “spheres of influence”. The Dutch East Indies fell into Japan’s sphere.

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INVASION JAPONESA DURANTE LA SEGUNDA GUERRA MUNDIAL.

The Netherlands, Britain and the United States tried to defend the colony from the Japanese forces as they moved south in late 1941 in search of Dutch oil.  On 10 January 1942, during the Dutch East Indies Campaign, Japanese forces invaded the Dutch East Indies as part of the Pacific War.  The rubber plantations and oil fields of the Dutch East Indies were considered crucial for the Japanese war effort. Allied forces were quickly overwhelmed by the Japanese and on 8 March 1942 the Royal Dutch East Indies Army surrendered in Java.

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ALEMANES EN JAVA CELEBRANDO LA OCUPACION JAPONESA.

Fuelled by the Japanese Light of Asia war propaganda  and the Indonesian National Awakening, a vast majority of the indigenous Dutch East Indies population first welcomed the Japanese as liberators from the colonial Dutch empire, but this sentiment quickly changed as the occupation turned out to be far more oppressive and ruinous than the Dutch colonial government. 

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ARQUITECTURA COLONIAL.

 The Japanese occupation during World War II brought about the fall of the colonial state in Indonesia,  as the Japanese removed as much of the Dutch government structure as they could, replacing it with their own regime.  Although the top positions were held by the Japanese, the internment of all Dutch citizens meant that Indonesians filled many leadership and administrative positions. 

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ARQUITECTURA COLONIAL – MUSEO DE INDONESIA.

In contrast to Dutch repression of Indonesian nationalism, the Japanese allowed indigenous leaders to forge links amongst the masses, and they trained and armed the younger generations. Acording to a UN report, four million people died in Indonesia as a result of the Japanese occupation. Following the Japanese surrender in August 1945, nationalist leaders Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta declared Indonesian independence.

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ARQUITECTURA COLONIAL – BANCO DE INDONESIA.

 A four and a half-year struggle followed as the Dutch tried to re-establish their colony; although Dutch forces re-occupied most of Indonesia’s territory a guerrilla struggle ensued, and the majority of Indonesians, and ultimately international opinion, favoured Indonesian independence.

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In December 1949, the Netherlands formally recognized Indonesian sovereignty with the exception of the Netherlands New Guinea(Western New Guinea). Sukarno’s government campaigned for Indonesian control of the territory, and with pressure from the United States, the Netherlands agreed to the New York Agreement which ceded the territory to Indonesian administration in May 1963.

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