HYDERABAD (ESTADO)

(HYDERABAD STATE)    1724 – 1956

Asafia_flag_of_Hyderabad_State

Hyderabad, Haiderabad en español,​ fue un estado de la India que existió entre 1724 y 1956. Su capital, la ciudad de Hyderabad fue durante dicho periodo la 4.ª ciudad más grande de la India. Fue subdividida posteriormente entre los estados de Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka y Maharastra.

Hyderabad_Coat_of_Arms

EMBLEMA DE HYDERABAD.

Asif Jah era un general mogol que conquistó la meseta del Decán para su soberano y fue designado virrey. Con el declive del Imperio se aseguró una independencia que fue confirmada por las armas en 1724 cuando se proclamó soberano bajo el nombre de Nizam-ul-Mulk Asif Jah I fundó la dinastía Asif jahi.

osman ali kan

ULTIMO NIZAM OSMAN ALI KHAN.

Desde 1748 a 1762 hubo una lucha por el trono. Los británicos apoyaron a Nasir Jung que ocupó el trono pero murió en combate en 1750 y consiguió el poder el pretendiente apoyado por Francia Muzafar Jung que murió asesinado en 1751 y le sucedió su hijo Salabath Jung. En 1762 su hermano Nizam Ali Khan le destronó y ocupó su lugar. Fue la mejor época del reino. Murió en agosto de 1803 con 72 años y le sucedió su hijo   Sikander Jah (1803-1829).

1 anna 1928

MONEDA DE 1 ANNA – 1928.

A su muerte en mayo de 1829 le sustituyó su primogénito Nasir ud Dowla, hasta su muerte, acaecida el 17 de mayo de 1857. Su hijo Afzal ud Dowla fue el siguiente soberano (1857-1869). Murió el 26 de febrero de 1869 con 43 años, dejando un hijo de tres años llamado Mahboob Ali Pasha, creándose una regencia en la que participaron los británicos, Su largo reinado terminó a su muerte el 31 de agosto de 1911. Su hijo Mir osman Ali khan llegó al trono y fue el último Nizam: persona de gran riqueza, hizo donaciones a instituciones hindúes, sijs y musulmanas.

1937

SELLOS EMITIDOS POR EL ESTADO DE HYDERABAD.

El 14 de agosto de 1947 el país accedió a la independencia. Como todos los estados nativos de la India, se les concedió la elección de unirse a la India o a Pakistán o ser independientes. El Nizam rechazó entrar en la India (la mayoría de sus súbditos eran de religión hinduista) y también en Pakistán (a pesar de ser él mismo musulmán) y optó por la independencia. India, ante la existencia de un estado dirigido por un musulmán enclavado en su territorio, y con una población hindú, envió sus tropas en septiembre de 1948 y anexionó el país. El Nizam murió el 24 de febrero de 1967.

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BILLETE DE 1 RUPIA.

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BILLETE DE 10 RUPIAS.

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BILLETE DE 100 RUPIAS.

Hyderabad State,  also known as Hyderabad Deccan, was an Indian princely statelocated in the south-central region of India with its capital at the city of Hyderabad. It is now divided into Telanganastate, Hyderabad-Karnataka region of Karnataka and Marathwada region of Maharashtra. The state was ruled from 1724 until 1948 by a hereditary Nizam who was initially a Mughal governor of the Deccan before becoming independent.

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OSMAN ALI KHAN CON SUS MUJERES.

Hyderabad gradually became the first princely state to come under British paramountcy signing a subsidiary alliance agreement. After the Partition of India, Hyderabad signed a standstill agreement with the new dominion of India, continuing all previous arrangements except for the stationing of Indian troops in the state. However, with the rise of militant razakars, India found it necessary to station Indian troops and invaded the state in September 1948 to compel the Nizam. Subsequently, the Nizam signed an instrument of accession, joining India.

ultimo nizam mukarran jah

Hyderabad was an 82,000 square mile (212,000 km²) region in the Deccan, ruled by the head of the Asif Jahi dynasty, who had the title of Nizam and on whom was bestowed the style of “His Exalted Highness” by the British. The last Nizam, Osman Ali Khan, was one of the world’s richest men in the 1930s. Hyderabad’s Muslim nizams ruled over a predominantly Hindu population.

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ESPOSAS DE OSMAN ALI KHAN.

In 1947 India gained independence and Pakistan came into existence; the British left the local rulers of the princely statesthe choice of whether to join one or the other, or to remain independent. On 11 June 1947, the Nizam issued a declaration to the effect that he had decided not to participate in the Constituent Assembly of either Pakistan or India. India insisted that the great majority of residents wanted to join India.

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GOBIERNO DE HYDERABAD – 1920.

On 21 August 1948, the Secretary-General of the Hyderabad Department of External Affairs requested the President of the United Nations’s Security Council, under Article 35(2) of the United Nations Charter, to consider the “grave dispute, which, unless settled in accordance with international law and justice, is likely to endanger the maintenance of international peace and security.

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PALACIO CHOWMAHALLA.

On 4 September the Prime Minister of Hyderabad Mir Laiq Ali announced to the Hyderabad Assembly that a delegation was about to leave for Lake Success, headed by Moin Nawaz Jung.  The Nizam also appealed, without success, to the British Labour Government and to the King for assistance, to fulfil their obligations and promises to Hyderabad by “immediate intervention”. Hyderabad only had the support of Winston Churchill and the British Conservatives.

king kothi

PALACIO DE KING KOTHI.

At 4 a.m. on 13 September 1948, India’s Hyderabad Campaign, code-named “Operation Polo” by the Indian Army, began. Indian troops invaded Hyderabad from all points of the compass. On 13 September 1948, the Secretary-General of the Hyderabad Department of External Affairs in a cablegram informed the United Nations Security Council that Hyderabad was being invaded by Indian forces and that hostilities had broken out. The Security Council took notice of it on 16 September in Paris.

mir usman ali

CORONACION DE OSMAN ALI KHAN.

The representative of Hyderabad called for immediate action by the Security Council under chapter VII of the United Nations Charter. The Hyderabad representative responded to India’s excuse for the intervention by pointing out that the Stand-still Agreement between the two countries had expressly provided that nothing in it should give India the right to send in troops to assist in the maintenance of internal order.

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SEPULTURA DEL ULTIMO NIZAM DE HYDERABAD.

At 5 p.m. on 17 September the Nizam surrendered. India then incorporated the state of Hyderabad into the Union of India and ended the rule of the Nizams.

On 6 October 1948, Pakistan’s Foreign Minister Sir Muhammad Zafarullah Khan, requested the President of the United Nations’ Security Council that Pakistan be permitted to participate in the discussion of the Hyderabad question in accordance with Article 31 of the United Nations’ Charter.

HY06NIZAM

DESCENDIENTES DEL ULTIMO NIZAM, OSMAN ALI KHAN.

After the incorporation of Hyderabad State into India, M. K. Vellodi was appointed as Chief Minister of the state on 26 January 1950. He was a Senior Civil servant in the Government of India. He administered the state with the help of bureaucrats from Madras stateand Bombay state.

Mir-Osman-Alikhan

OSMAN ALI KAHN.

In the 1952 Legislative Assembly election, Dr. Burgula Ramakrishna Rao was elected Chief minister of Hyderabad State. During this time there were violent agitations by some Telanganites to send back bureaucrats from Madras state, and to strictly implement ‘Mulki-rules'(Local jobs for locals only), which was part of Hyderabad state law since 1919.

In 1956 during the Reorganisation of the Indian States based along linguistic lines, the state of Hyderabad was split up among Andhra Pradesh, Bombay state (later divided into states of Maharashtra and Gujarat in 1960 with the original portions of Hyderabad becoming part of the state of Maharashtra) and Karnataka.

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