HUNGRIA (REINO)

(KINGDOM OF HUNGARY)     1920 – 1946

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Reino de Hungría (en húngaro: Magyar Királyság), es el nombre de un reino que existió en Europa Central desde 1000 hasta 1919, con una interrupción de cinco meses durante la cual existió la República Soviética Húngara.

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ESCUDO DEL REINO DE HUNGRIA.

Tras el derrocamiento del régimen comunista se restauró el Reino de Hungría (1920-1945). Surgió en la actual Hungría occidental y se extendió, en su cénit, por el resto de la actual Hungría, Transilvania (hoy Rumanía), Eslovaquia, Cárpato-Ucrania, Croacia (después Croacia-Slavonia).

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ULTIMO REY CARLOS IV.

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REGENTE MIKLOS HORTHY.

El término “Reino de Hungría” se usa para referirse a aquella duradera configuración multiétnica de territorios distinguiéndola del moderno Estado de Hungría, significativamente más pequeño y étnicamente homogéneo. Antes y durante el siglo XIX, el término húngaro designaba a cualquier habitante de ese Estado, independientemente de su etnicidad.

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CORONACION DEL ULTIMO REY CARLOS IV.

Desde 1867 los territorios conectados a la corona húngara se incorporaron a Austria-Hungría bajo el nombre de Tierras de la Corona de San Esteban. La monarquía terminó con la deposición del último rey Carlos IV en 1918, después de lo cual Hungría se convirtió en una república. El reino fue restaurado nominalmente durante la “Regencia” de 1920-1946, terminando con la ocupación soviética en 1946.

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BODA DE CARLOS IV – 1916.

Las tierras de la Corona húngara (que comprende el propio Reino de Hungría, en el que se incorporó Transilvania por completo, y el Reino de Croacia-Eslavonia, que mantuvo una identidad distinta y una cierta autonomía interna) obtuvieron el mismo estatus que el resto de los Habsburgo monarquía. Cada uno de los dos estados que comprende Austria-Hungría ejerció una independencia considerable, y ciertas instituciones, especialmente la casa reinante, la defensa, los asuntos exteriores y las finanzas para gastos comunes, permanecieron bajo gestión conjunta. Este arreglo duró hasta 1918, cuando los poderes centrales se hundieron en la derrota en la Primera Guerra Mundial.

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REGENTE MIKLOS HORTHY CON EL REY DE ITALIA VICTOR EMMANUELL II – 1936.

Las nuevas fronteras establecidas en 1920 por el Tratado de Trianon cedieron el 72% del territorio del Reino de Hungría a los estados vecinos. Los principales beneficiarios fueron Rumanía, los recién formados estados de Checoslovaquia y el Reino de los serbios, croatas y eslovenos, pero también Austria, Polonia e Italia obtuvieron territorios más pequeños. Las áreas que fueron asignadas a los países vecinos en total (y cada una de ellas por separado) poseían una mayoría de población no húngara, pero más de 3,3 millones de húngaros étnicos quedaron fuera de las nuevas fronteras de Hungría.

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MIKLOS HORTHY CON ADOLF HITLER.

El 19 de marzo de 1944, las tropas alemanas ocuparon Hungría en lo que se conoció como la Operación Margarethe. Para entonces, estaba claro que la política húngara sería reprimida de acuerdo con la intención de Hitler de mantener al país en la guerra del lado del Tercer Reich nazi debido a su ubicación estratégica. El 15 de octubre de 1944, Horthy hizo un esfuerzo simbólico por desvincular a Hungría de la guerra. Los alemanes lanzaron la Operación Panzerfaust y el régimen de Horthy fue reemplazado por un gobierno títere fascista.

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MIKLOS HORTHY.

The Kingdom of Hungary was a multiethnic state from its inception until the Treaty of Trianon and it covered what is today Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, Transylvania and other parts of what is now Romania, Carpathian Ruthenia (now part of Ukraine), Vojvodina (now part of Serbia), Burgenland (now part of Austria), and other smaller territories surrounding present-day Hungary’s borders.

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SELLO CON LA EFIGIE DEL REGENTE MIKLOS HORTHY.

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The lands of the Hungarian Crown (comprising the Kingdom of Hungary proper, into which Transylvania was fully incorporated, and the Kingdom of Croatia–Slavonia, which maintained a distinct identity and a certain internal autonomy) were granted equal status with the rest of the Habsburg monarchy. Each of the two states comprising Austria-Hungary exercised considerable independence, with certain institutions, notably the reigning house, defence, foreign affairs, and finances for common expenditures, remaining under joint management. This arrangement lasted until 1918, when the Central Powers went down in defeat in World War I.

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MONEDA DE 20 FILLER – REINADO CARLOS IV – 1916.

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MONEDA DE 5 PENGO – REGENCIA DE MIKLOS HORTHY – 1939.

The new borders set in 1920 by the Treaty of Trianon ceded 72% of the territory of the Kingdom of Hungary to the neighbouring states. The main beneficiaries were Romania, the newly formed states of Czechoslovakia, and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, but also Austria, Poland and Italy gained smaller territories. The areas that were allocated to neighbouring countries in total (and each of them separately) possessed a majority of non-Hungarian population, but more than 3.3 million ethnic Hungarians were left outside the new borders of Hungary.

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BILLETE DE 5 PENGO – 1928.

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BILLETE DE 10 PENGO – 1929.

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BILLETE DE 1.000 PENGO – 1943.

After the pullout of occupation forces of Romania in 1920 the country went into civil conflict, with Hungarian anti-communists and monarchists purging the nation of communists, leftists and others by whom they felt threatened. Later in 1920, a coalition of right-wing political forces united, and reinstated Hungary’s status as a constitutional monarchy. Selection of the new King was delayed due to civil infighting, and a regent was appointed to represent the monarchy. Former Austro-Hungarian navy admiral Miklós Horthy became that regent.

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ENTRADA DEL EJERCITO SOVIETICO EN BUDAPEST.

After being granted part of southern Czechoslovakia and Subcarpathia by the Germans and Italians in the First Vienna Award of 1938, and then northern Transylvania in the Second Vienna Award of 1940, Hungary participated in their first military maneuvers on the side of the Axis powers in 1941. Thus, the Hungarian army was part of the invasion of Yugoslavia, gaining some more territory and joining the Axis powers in the process. On 22 June 1941, Germany invaded the Soviet Union in Operation Barbarossa. Hungary joined the German effort and declared war on the Soviet Union on 26 June, and entered World War II on the side of the Axis.

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ANTIGUO PALACIO REAL DE BUDAPEST.

In late 1941, the Hungarian troops on the Eastern Front experienced success at the Battle of Uman. By 1943, after the Hungarian Second Army suffered extremely heavy losses at the river Don, the Hungarian government sought to negotiate a surrender with the Allies. On 19 March 1944, as a result of this duplicity, German troops occupied Hungary in what was known as Operation Margarethe.

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ANTIGUO PALACIO REAL DE GODOLLO.

By then it was clear that Hungarian politics would be suppressed according to Hitler’s intention to hold the country in the war on the side of the Nazi Third Reich because of its strategic location. On 15 October 1944, Horthy made a token effort to disengage Hungary from the war. The Germans launched Operation Panzerfaust and Horthy’s regime was replaced by a fascist.

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MAUSOLEO DE MIKLOS HORTHY.

Following its occupation of Hungary in 1944, the Soviet Union imposed harsh conditions allowing it to seize important material assets and control internal affairs.[41] After the Red Army set up police organs to persecute class enemies, the Soviets assumed that the impoverished Hungarian populace would support the communists in the coming elections. The communists fared poorly, receiving only 17% of the vote, resulting in a coalition government under Prime Minister Zoltán Tildy.

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BUSTO DE MIKLOS HORTHY.

The sense of continuity is reflected in the republic’s national symbols such as the Holy Crown of Hungary and the Coat of arms of Hungary, which are the same as when the monarchy was still in place. Several holidays, the official language (Hungarian), and the capital city Budapest have also been retained. The official Hungarian name of the country is Magyarország (simply Hungary) since 2012; it was also the common name of the monarchy.  The millennium of the Hungarian statehood was commemorated in 2000 and codified by the Millennium Act of 2000.

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