(EMIRATE OF BUKHARA) 1747 – 1920
El emirato de Bujará (1747-1920) fue un antiguo estado del Asia Central, con capital en Bujará, que fue protectorado ruso desde 1873 hasta su desaparición durante la Revolución Rusa.
Fue creado después de que el Kanato de Bujará fuera conquistado por el sha de Persia Nadir Sah y fue regido por los emires de la dinastía Mangudai. En 1920 se convirtió en la República Popular Soviética de Bujará y su territorio ahora se reparte entre los territorios de Uzbekistán y Tayikistán.
El emirato de Bujará fue creado oficialmente en 1785, tras la asunción del emir (de la dinastía Mangudai), Shah Murad. En el transcurso del siglo XVIII, los emires lentamente habían adquirido el control efectivo del Kanato de Bujará, desde su empleo militar como ataliq. En la década de 1740, cuando el janato fue conquistado por Nadir Shah de Persia, fue evidente que los emires tenían el verdadero poder en Bujará.
The Emirate of Bukhara (Persian: امارت بخارا; Uzbek: Buxoro amirligi) was a Central Asian state that existed from 1785 to 1920, which is now modern-day Uzbekistan. It occupied the land between the Amu Darya and Syr Daryarivers, known formerly as Transoxiana.
Its core territory was the land along the lower Zarafshan River, and its urban centres were the ancient cities of Samarkand and the emirate’s capital, Bukhara. It was contemporaneous with the Khanate of Khiva to the west, in Khwarezm, and the Khanate of Kokand to the east, in Fergana. It is now within the boundaries of Uzbekistan.
In 1868, the emirate lost a war with Imperial Russia, which had colonial aspirations in the region. Russia annexed much of the emirate’s territory, including the important city of Samarkand. In 1873 the remainder became a Russian protectorate, and was soon surrounded by the Governorate-General of Turkestan.
Reformists within the Emirate had found the conservative emir, Mohammed Alim Khan, unwilling to loosen his grip on power, and had turned to the Russian Bolshevik revolutionaries for military assistance. The Red Army launched an unsuccessful assault in March 1920, and then a successful one in September of the same year.
The Emirate of Bukhara was conquered by the Bolsheviks and replaced with the Bukharan People’s Soviet Republic. Today the territory of the defunct emirate lies mostly in Uzbekistan, with parts in Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan. It had also included present northern Afghanistan between 1793 and 1850.
The emir’s daughter Shukria Raad Alimi worked as a broadcaster in Radio Afghanistan. Shukria Raad left Afghanistan with her family three months after Soviet troops invaded the country in December 1979. With her husband, also a journalist, and two children she fled to Pakistan, and then through Germany to the United States. In 1982, she joined the VOA, and has worked as a broadcaster for VOA’s Dari Service, editor, host and producer.
Located along important trading routes, Bukhara enjoyed a rich cultural mixture, including Persian, Uzbek, and Jewish influences. The city of Bukhara has a rich history of Persian architecture and literature, traditions that were continued into the Emirate Period. Prominent artists of the period include the poet Kiromi Bukhoroi, the calligrapherMirza Abd al-Aziz Bukhari and the scholar Rahmat-Allah Bukhari. Throughout this period, the madrasahs of the region were renowned.
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