(STRAITS SETTLEMENTS) 1826 – 1946
Las Colonias del Estrecho (en inglés y oficialmente Straits Settlements) fueron un grupo de territorios británicos localizados en el sudeste asiático, originalmente establecidos en el año 1826 como parte de los territorios controlados por la Compañía Británica de las Indias Orientales, aunque a partir del 1 de abril de 1867 quedaron bajo control directo británico.
Consistían en unos asentamientos individuales en Malaca, Penang, Dinding y Singapur, todos ellos ubicados en la península de Malaca, y desde 1907 también Labuan, ubicado al norte de la isla de Borneo.
Fueron disueltas el 1 de abril de 1946 debido a la reorganización británica de sus dependencias en el sudeste asiático después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Con la excepción de Singapur, estos territorios actualmente forman parte de Malasia.
The Straits Settlements were a group of British territories located in Southeast Asia. Originally established in 1826 as part of the territories controlled by the British East India Company, the Straits Settlements came under direct British control as a Crown colony on 1 April 1867. The colony was dissolved in 1946 as part of the British reorganisation of its Southeast Asian dependencies following the end of the Second World War.
The Straits Settlements originally consisted of the four individual settlements of Malacca, Dinding, Penang and Singapore. The Penang territory included Penang Island, formerly known as Prince of Wales Island, and Seberang Perai on the mainland, formerly known as Province Wellesley. Christmas Island and the Cocos Islands were also included.
The island of Labuan, off the coast of Borneo, was also incorporated into the colony with effect from 1 January 1907, becoming a separate settlement within it in 1912. Most of the territories now form part of Malaysia, from which Singapore separated in 1965. The Cocos (or Keeling) Islands were transferred to Australian control in 1955. Christmas Island was transferred in 1958. Their administration was combined in 1996 to form the Australian Indian Ocean Territories.
The establishment of the Straits Settlements followed the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824, by which the Malay archipelago was divided into a British zone in the north and a Dutch zone in the south. This resulted in the exchange of the British settlement of Bencoolen (on Sumatra) for the Dutch colony of Malacca and undisputed control of Singapore.
The Settlements were largely Chinese in population, with a tiny but important European minority. Their capital was moved from Penang to Singapore in 1832. Their scattered nature proved to be difficult and, after the company lost its monopoly in the china trade in 1833, expensive to administer.
During their control by the East India Company, the Settlements were used as penal settlements for Indian civilian and military prisoners, earning them the title of the “Botany Bays of India”. The years 1852 and 1853 saw minor uprisings by convicts in Singapore and Penang. Upset with East India Company rule, in 1857 the European population of the Settlements sent a petition to the British Parliament asking for direct rule; but the idea was overtaken by events—the Indian Rebellion of 1857.
When a “Gagging Act” was imposed to prevent the uprising in India spreading, the Settlements’ press reacted with anger, classing it as something that subverted “every principle of liberty and free discussion”. As there was little or no vernacular press in the Settlements, such an act seemed irrelevant: it was rarely enforced and ended in less than a year.
On 1 April 1867 the Settlements became a British Crown colony, making the Settlements answerable directly to the Colonial Office in London instead of the government of British India based in Calcutta, British India. Earlier, on 4 February 1867, Letters Patent had granted the Settlements a colonial constitution.
This allocated much power to the Settlements’ Governor, who administered the colony of the Straits Settlements with the aid of an Executive Council, composed wholly of official members, and a Legislative Council, composed partly of official and partly of nominated members, of which the former had a narrow permanent majority. The work of administration, both in the colony and in the Federated Malay States, was carried on by means of a civil service whose members were recruited by competitive examination held annually in London.
OTRAS DE MIS WEBS
CEUTA DESCONOCIDA: http://www.ceutadesconocida.wordpress.com