AUSTRIA ALEMANA

(REPUBLIC OF GERMAN AUSTRIA)     1918 – 1919

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La República de Austria Alemana (alemán: Republik Deutschösterreich o Deutsch-Österreich) es el nombre que recibe la nación austríaca justo después del desmembramiento del Imperio austrohúngaro, al finalizar la Primera Guerra Mundial. Esta nación, con fronteras un poco mayores a la Austria actual, intentó reclamar territorios poblados por alemanes étnicos en Checoslovaquia y Hungría, e intentó ser anexada por Alemania, con el objetivo de formar un gran estado alemán.

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ESCUDO DE AUSTRIA ALEMANA.

Durante la monarquía de los Habsburgo, el término Austria Germana se utilizaba para designar a las regiones pobladas por alemanes étnicos en el imperio. Al iniciarse el desmembramiento del sistema de gobierno imperial, los miembros austríacos del Parlamento se convirtieron de facto en los gobernantes de Austria.

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PRESIDENTE KARL SEITZ.

Inmediatamente se creó una Asamblea Nacional Provisional, conformados por representates de todas las provincias de Austria. También se agregaron representantes de Bohemia, Moravia y de la Silesia austríaca, representando a las poblaciones alemanas que no querían formar parte de Checoslovaquia, formada el 28 de octubre de 1918.

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CANCILLER KARL RENNER.

El 11 de noviembre de ese mismo año, el emperador Carlos I abdicó y al día siguiente se proclamó la creación de la República de Austria Germana como una república democrática y parte de la nueva República de Weimar. Los socialdemócratas austríacos Karl Renner y Karl Seitz, fueron designados canciller y presidente, respectivamente.

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PROCLAMACION DE LA REPUBLICA DE AUSTRIA ALEMANA.

La entonces «Austria alemana» reclamaba el territorio de la actual Austria, además de la región de Tirol Sur y Tarvisio de Italia, el sur de Carintia y de Estiria de Eslovenia, y toda la franja occidental de Bohemia y los Sudetes de la República Checa. Todas estas regiones estaban habitadas en aquel entonces por una importante población alemana, que habían formado parte de Austria-Hungría.

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PARLAMENTO DE VIENA – 1919.

Después de realizar plebiscitos en sus distintas regiones, obteniendo resultados abrumadores a favor de la unificación con Alemania, Austria Germana procedió a realizar el 22 de noviembre el reclamo oficial de las regiones mencionadas, así como declarar sus intenciones de unificarse con Alemania.

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CANCILLER KARL RENNER – 1919.

Karl Renner fue presionado para firmar el Tratado de Saint-Germain-en-Laye el 10 de septiembre de 1919, donde entre otras cosas, se cambia el nombre de la joven república de Austria Germana a Austria solamente, y se prohibía la unificación del país con otro a menos que contara con la aprobación de la Sociedad de Naciones. De igual manera, en el Tratado de Versalles (1919), se le prohibió a Alemania unificarse con Austria.

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SELLOS RESELLADOS PARA USO EN AUSTRIA ALEMANA.

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SELLOS EMITIDOS PARA AUSTRIA ALEMANA.

The Republic of German-Austria (German: Republik Deutschösterreich or Deutsch-Österreich) was a country created following World War I as the initial rump state for areas with a predominantly German-speaking population within what had been the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

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MONEDA DE 20 CORONAS DE 1918.

On October 16, 1918 Emperor Charles I published a manifesto which offered to change Austria-Hungary into a federation of nationalities. This came too late as Czechs and Southern Slavs were well on their way to creating independent states. However, this gave an impulse to the Reichsrat of German inhabited areas to meet.

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BILLETE DE 1 CORONA.

On November 11, 1918, Emperor Charles I in all but name abdicated, by relinquishing his right to take part in Austrian affairs of state.

The next day, November 12, the National Assembly officially declared German-Austria a republic, and named Social Democrat Karl Renner as provisional chancellor. On the same day it drafted a provisional constitution that stated that “German-Austria is a democratic republic” (Article 1) and “German-Austria is an integral part of the German republic” (Article 2).

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BILLETE DE 1000 CORONAS DEL EXTINTO IMPERIO AUSTRO HUNGARO RESELLADO “DEUTSCHOSTERREICH” PARA SU USO EN LA REPUBLICA DE AUSTRIA ALEMANA.

On November 13, 1918, German-Austria asked Germany to start negotiations of union and on November 15 sent a telegram to President Wilson to support union of Germany and Austria. This was grounded in the view that Austria had never been a nation in the true sense.

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EL PARLAMENTO – VIENA.

While the Austrian state had existed in one form or another for over 700 years (dating to the Holy Roman Empire), its only unifying force had been the Habsburgs. Apart from being German-inhabited, these Lands had no common “Austrian” identity. They were Habsburg-ruled lands that had not joined the Prussian-dominated German Empire after the Austrian Empire lost the Austro-Prussian War.

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LA CANCILLERIA – 1919.

During spring and summer of 1919, unity talk meetings between German and Austrian representatives continued. All this changed after June 2, 1919 when the draft peace treaty with Austria was presented, which demonstrated that the Western Allies were opposed to any union between Germany and Austria.

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MONUMENTO AL CANCILLER KARL RENNER.

German-Austria claimed sovereignty over all the majority-German territory of the former Habsburg realm: a total area of 118,311 km2 (45,680 sq mi) with 10.4 million inhabitants. This included nearly all the territory of present-day Austria, plus South Tyrol and the town of Tarvisio, both now in Italy; southern Carinthia and southern Styria, now in Slovenia; and Sudetenland and German Bohemia (which later became part of Sudetenland), now in the Czech Republic. In practice, however, its authority was limited to the Danubian and Alpine provinces of the old Habsburg realm—with few exceptions, most of present-day Austria.

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MONUMENTO AL PRESIDENTE KARL SEITZ.

On November 22, the national assembly officially laid claim to all ethnic German areas of Cisleithania. However, the Allies of World War I opposed such a move and German-Austria was largely powerless to resist the forces of Italy, Czechoslovakia, and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes from seizing some of its territory.

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FUNDACION DE LA REPUBLICA DE AUSTRIA ALEMANA.

Countries on the winning side of the war took many territories with German majorities. The Czechs ignored principles of ethnic borders and insisted on the historic borders of the Kingdom of Bohemia; thus three million Germans became Czechoslovak citizens, an indirect precipitant of the Sudetenland crisis 20 years later. A victor nation, Italy occupied and was awarded Trentino and South Tyrol, of which South Tyrol is still majority German-speaking. Yugoslavia was given parts of Carinthia and Styria. The Klagenfurt region was retained after a plebiscite on October 20, 1920, when three fifths of voters voted to remain with Austria.

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