AFRICA ORIENTAL PORTUGUESA

(PORTUGUESE EAST AFRICA)   1498 – 1975

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África Oriental Portuguesa es el nombre que recibían una serie de colonias portuguesas situadas a lo largo de la costa de África oriental y que hoy en día son parte de Mozambique.

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ESCUDO DE MOZAMBIQUE PORTUGUES.

Portugal fundó estos puestos comerciales, que más tarde se convertirían en colonias, a partir de 1498, cuando Vasco de Gama alcanzó por primera vez la costa de Mozambique en su viaje hacia la India. A finales del siglo XIX, algunas de estas colonias fueron cedidas a compañías comerciales como la Compañía de Mozambique (Companhia de Moçambique en portugués).

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VITOR MANUEL TRIGUEIROS. ULTIMO GOBERNADOR.

Las colonias que formaban lo que se conocía como África Oriental Portugesa eran (de norte a sur):

  • Lourenço Marques, hoy Maputo, capital de Mozambique.
  • Inhambane.
  • Manica y Sofala (administradas hasta 1942 por la Compañía de Mozambique).
  • Quelimane y Tete (inicialmente separadas, pero unidas posteriormente como Zambezia).
  • Mozambique (ahora Nampula).
  • Niassa (administrada hasta 1929 por la Compañía de Niassa).
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SOLDADOS PORTUGUESES – 1966.

Tras la Primera Guerra Mundial, Portugal obtuvo de la colonia alemana de Tanganica el puerto de Kionga. En 1951 las colonias fueron unificadas en una única provincia de ultramar con el nombre de Mozambique (Moçambique en portugués). Algunas de estas provincias han dado nombre al de las modernas provincias de Mozambique.

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GUERRA COLONIAL.

Después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, mientras muchas naciones europeas estaban concediendo la independencia a sus colonias, Portugal creyó en el concepto de que Mozambique y otras posesiones portuguesas eran provincias de ultramar de la madre patria, y la emigración hacia las colonias aumentó.

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La población portuguesa de Mozambique en el momento de la independencia era alrededor de 250 000 habitantes. La carrera por la independencia de Mozambique se desarrolló rápidamente, y en 1962 varios grupos políticos anticoloniales formaron el Frente para la Liberación de Mozambique (FRELIMO), el cual inició una campaña armada contra el gobierno colonial portugués en septiembre de 1964.

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MONEDA DE 20 ESCUDOS – 1972.

Después de una década de guerra esporádica y un cambio democrático en Portugal tras la Revolución de los Claveles(parcialmente originado por la guerra en Angola y Mozambique), el FRELIMO toma el control de la capital en abril de 1974 y un año después casi la práctica totalidad de los colonizadores portugueses abandonaron Mozambique (algunos expulsados o huidos por miedo) y el 25 de junio de 1975 Mozambique alcanza su independencia.

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BILLETE DE 1 ESCUDO – 1941.

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BILLETE DE 10 ESCUDOS – 1945.

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BILLETE DE 100 ESCUDOS – 1943.

Portuguese Mozambique (Portuguese: Moçambique) or Portuguese East Africa (África Oriental Portuguesa) are the common terms by which Mozambique is designated when referring to the historic period when it was a Portuguese overseas territory. Portuguese Mozambique constituted a string of Portuguese colonies and later a single Portuguese overseas province along the south-east African coast, which now forms the Republic of Mozambique.

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SELLOS DE LA COMPAÑIA DE MOZAMBIQUE.

Portuguese trading settlements and, later, colonies, were formed along the coast from 1498, when Vasco da Gamafirst reached the Mozambican coast. Lourenço Marques explored the area that is now Maputo Bay in 1544. He settled permanently in present-day Mozambique, where he spent most of his life, and his work was followed by other Portuguese explorers, sailors and traders.

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LOURENÇO MARQUES FUE LA CAPITAL DE LA COLONIA.

Some of these colonies were handed over in the late 19th century for rule by chartered companies such as the Mozambique Company (Companhia de Moçambique), which had the concession of the lands corresponding to the present-day provinces of Manica and Sofala, and the Niassa Company (Companhia do Niassa), which had controlled the lands of the modern provinces of Cabo Delgado and Niassa.

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LOURENÇO MARQUES EN 1905.

In 1951 the colonies were combined into a single overseas province under the name Moçambique as an integral part of Portugal. Most of the original colonies have given their names to the modern provinces of Mozambique.

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CATEDRAL DE NOSSA SENHORA DA CONCEIÇAO.

Mozambique, according to official policy, was not a colony at all but rather a part of the “pluricontinental and multiracial nation” of Portugal. Portugal sought in Mozambique, as it did in all its colonies, to Europeanise the local population and assimilate them into Portuguese culture.  Lisbon also wanted to retain the colonies as trading partners and markets for its goods.

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EDIFICIO COLONIAL – ESTACION DE FERROCARRIL EN MAPUTO.

African inhabitants of the colony were ultimately supposed to become full citizens with full political rights through a long development process. To that end, segregation in Mozambique was minimal compared to that in neighbouring South Africa. However, paid forced labour, to which all Africans were liable if they failed to pay head tax, was not abolished until the early 1960s.

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ANTIGUA CASA DE GOBERNACION COLONIAL.

In the 1950s, the Portuguese overseas colony was rebranded an overseas province of Portugal, and by the early 1970s it was officially upgraded to the status of Portuguese non-sovereign state, by which it would remain a Portuguese territory but with a wider administrative autonomy. The Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO), initiated a guerrilla campaign against Portuguese rule in September 1964.

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EN LA PLAYA DE BEIRA SE ENCUENTRAN  BUNKERS DE LA EPOCA COLONIAL.

This conflict, along with the two others already initiated in the other Portuguese colonies of Angola and Guinea, became part of the so-called Portuguese Colonial War (1961–74). From a military standpoint, the Portuguese regular army held the upper hand during all of the conflicts against the independentist guerrilla forces, which created favourable conditions for social development and economic growth until the end of the conflict in 1974.

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IGLESIA PORTUGUESA EN INHAMBANE.

After ten years of sporadic warfare and after Portugal’s return to democracy through a leftist military coup in Lisbon which replaced Portugal’s Estado Novo regime in favor of a military junta (the Carnation Revolution of April 1974), FRELIMO took control of the territory.

FORTALEZA S. SEBASTIAO.

FORTALEZA DE SAN SEBASTIAO.

The talks that led to an agreement on Mozambique’s independence, signed in Lusaka, were started. Within a year, almost all ethnic Portuguese population had left, many fleeing in fear (in mainland Portugal they were known as retornados); others were expelled by the ruling power of the newly independent territory. Mozambique became independent from Portugal on 25 June 1975.

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