(COLONY OF ADEN) 1937 – 1963.
La Colonia de Adén (en árabe مستعمرة عدن, Musta’marat ‘Adan) fue una colonia del Imperio británico entre los años 1937 y 1963, que consistía básicamente en la ciudad portuaria de Adén y sus alrededores inmediatos. Antes de 1937, el territorio de 121 km² era gobernado por la Presidencia de Bombay del Raj británico, y era conocido como Asentamiento de Adén.
El 18 de enero de 1963, se convirtió en el Estado de Adén (en árabe: ولاية عدن, Wilāyat ‘Adan) dentro de la recientemente creada Federación de Arabia del Sur y el 30 de noviembre de 1967 integró la República Popular de Yemen del Sur.
El 19 de enero de 1839, la Compañía Británica de las Indias Orientales envió a la Armada real británica a Adén a ocupar el territorio y detener el ataque de piratas contra los barcos británicos que viajaban a la India. La Armada real británica consideró Adén un lugar importante debido a su localización, ya que la armada podría fácilmente atracar en el puerto de Adén para re abastecerse. La influencia británica se expandió rápidamente hacia el interior de la colonia, con el establecimiento del Protectorado de Adén.
Adén se transformó rápidamente en un importante puerto de tránsito y comercio entre Gran Bretaña, India, el lejano Oriente y Europa, así como un excelente sitio para la extracción de carbón. El intercambio comercial y la importancia estratégica de Adén aumentaron considerablemente tras la apertura del Canal de Suez en 1869. Desde entonces y hasta la década de 1960, Adén se convirtió en uno de los puertos con mayor actividad de buques de aprovisionamiento de combustible, así como de tiendas libres de impuestos del mundo.
The Colony of Aden or Aden Colony (Arabic: مستعمرة عدن Musta‘marat ‘Adan) was a British Crown colony from 1937 to 1963 located in the south of contemporary Yemen. Prior to 1937, Aden had been governed as part of British India (originally as the Aden Settlement subordinate to the Bombay Presidency, and then as a “Chief Commissioner’s province”). Under the Government of India Act 1935the territory was detached from British India, and was established as a separate colony of the United Kingdom; this separation took effect on 1 April 1937.
On 19 January 1839, the British East India Company landed Royal Marines at Aden to occupy the territory and stop attacks by pirates against British shipping to India. The British Army considered Aden an important place due to its location, as the Navy could easily access the port at Aden for fuelling purposes. Later, British influence extended progressively into the hinterland, both west and east, with the establishment of the Aden Protectorate.
Aden soon became an important transit port and coaling station for trade between British India and the Far East, and Europe. The commercial and strategic importance of Aden increased considerably when the Suez Canal opened in 1869. From then and until the 1960s, the Port of Aden was to be one of the busiest ship-bunkering, duty-free shopping, and trading ports in the world.
In 1937, Aden was separated from British India to become a Crown Colony, a status that it retained until 1963. It consisted of the port city of Aden and its immediate surroundings (an area of 192 km², 75 sq. miles). The Aden Settlement, and later Aden Colony, also included the outlying islands of Kamaran, Perim and Kuria Muria.
Prior to 1937, Aden had been governed as part of British India (originally as the Aden Settlement under the Bombay Presidency, and then as a “Chief Commissioner’s province). Under the Government of India Act 1935 the territory was detached from British India, and was re-organised as a separate Crown Colony of the United Kingdom; this separation took effect on 1 April 1937.
To solve many of the above problems, as well as continuing the process of self-determination that was accompanying the dismantling of the Empire, it was proposed that the Colony of Aden should form a federation with the protectorates of East and West Aden. It was hoped that this would lessen Arab calls for complete independence, while still allowing British control of foreign affairs and the BP refinery at Little Aden to continue.
Federalism was first proposed by ministers from both the colony and protectorates, the suggested amalgamation would be beneficial they argued, in terms of economics, race, religion and languages. However the step was illogical in terms of Arab Nationalism, for it was taken just prior to some impending elections, and was against the wishes of Aden Arabs, notably many of the trade unions.
In the federation, Aden colony was to have 24 seats on the new council, while each of the eleven sultanates was to have six. While the federation as a whole would have financial and military aid from Britain.
On 18 January 1963, the colony was reconstituted as the State of Aden (Arabic: ولاية عدن Wilāyat ʿAdan), within the new Federation of South Arabia. With this Sir Charles Hepburn Johnston stepped down as the last Governor of Aden.
Many of the problems that Aden had suffered in its time as a colony did not improve on federation. Internal disturbances continued and intensified, leading to the Aden Emergency and the final departure of British troops. British rule ended on 30 November 1967.
The federation became the People’s Republic of South Yemen, and in line with other formerly British Arab territories in the Middle East, it did not join the British Commonwealth.
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